a Buddhist monastery 9 miles Northwest of Mardan on the road to Swat.
Near Takht-i-Bhai is the most impressive and complete Buddhist monastery
in Pakistan. The main buildings of the Takht-i-Bhai complex are the
monastery and stupas founded in the 1st century AD and abandoned in the
6th century. Surrounding the monastery on the ridge above it are the
ruins of private houses, some of them three stories high.
The name of Takht-i-Bhai means the hill of springs. There is
considerable evidence to show that during the Buddhist period there were
numerous springs on the hill here, which have now dried
up. Around 200
AD when Raja Varata was the king of Gandhara. Takht-i-Bhai was the
capital of the kingdom - The stupa on the site was found to contain
square court surrounded by a series of cells, which accommodated the
images. In the center of the court was an altar, access to which was
through a flight of steps an inscription in Kharoshthi characters by the
Parthian king Gandophernes dated 46 AD was found. The richness of the
sculptures recovered from the site indicates a very high standard of art
in sculpturing had been reached in the region in the beginning of the
Christian era. From Takht-i-Bhai one can either continue on up to Swat
return to Mardan and continue east on the ancient trade route.
From Mardan on the road east to Swabi, after 8 miles at Shahbaz Garhi,
there is the sign of the Ashoka inscriptions. There are 14 edicts
written on the two rocks, 12 on the big one and two on the small.
Throughout his empire, Asoka's inscriptions were written in the local
script. So the Shahbaz Garhi and Mansehra inscription were in the
Kharoshthi, the local Gandharan script, which is derived from the
Aramaic scripts used in Iran.